What Is Surveillance?

서울흥신소 Surveillance is a public health tool for monitoring disease and risk factors. This information can then be used to motivate intervention actions.


Individuals enrolled in surveillance can be identified at medical facilities (hospitals and outpatient clinics) or in the community. Hospital surveillance is easier to identify cases, but may miss cases that do not seek medical care.

Physical Surveillance

Whether it’s monitoring access points for unauthorized entry, or ensuring the safety of sensitive areas, physical surveillance is a critical component of security. Discreet physical surveillance services allow businesses and individuals to collect unbiased data that can be used in investigations, court cases, divorce proceedings, or any other scenario.

Unlike electronic surveillance, physical surveillance involves observing and following a person or group of people. This often requires detectives to dress in disguise or use vehicles that blend in with the surroundings. It can also involve staking out an area for an extended period of time, allowing detectives to observe activities in real-time without alerting the subject.

It’s common for private investigators to conduct physical surveillance in domestic cases, such as a spousal case or child custody issue. It can be a dangerous and stressful job, but one that can yield valuable results. It’s important to have an alibi in place and have props, such as a dog leash or bags of groceries, available to support the story in case you are confronted by someone while on surveillance.

There are several signs you might be under surveillance, such as a consistent 서울흥신소 change in time, route or destination. It’s also worth noting if you notice a suspicious change in a person’s demeanor. Trust your “spidey sense” and know that if something doesn’t feel right, it probably isn’t.

Emotional Surveillance

Emotional surveillance is a more nuanced and potentially dangerous form of tracking people. It relies on facial expressions, body language and vocal tone to read a person’s emotions. Unlike facial recognition software, which works by comparing faces to find matches, emotion recognition goes further, attempting to detect specific traits of anger, sadness, happiness or boredom.

Chinese companies are reportedly using the technology, which can even analyze an individual’s brainwaves to monitor mental distress. One of the firms, Taigusys, claims that its system can spot a “Duchenne smile” (involuntary muscle contraction around the eyes) and other emotional signs, including stress, anxiety or depression.

Human rights groups, tech experts and privacy advocates have all sounded the alarm on the emergence of this new type of surveillance. They warn that such systems are often inaccurate and deeply unethical, rooted in “unproven” assumptions about people’s feelings.

For example, the software used in prisons can detect a person’s “distress” by analyzing their facial expressions. But such algorithms can be biased against minority groups, leading to inaccuracies and racial profiling.

The software is also being pushed into schools during the pandemic, with a program from 4 Little Trees promising to assess students’ emotions while they do their schoolwork and predict their grades. Another product from Taigusys identifies different facial features, such as “happiness” or “fear”, and includes a database with pictures of people from a range of cultures.

Technical Surveillance

Technical surveillance is the process of searching for and identifying privacy-compromising electronic devices that intercept or record electronic signals. These devices are often called “bugs.” Technical surveillance countermeasures services (TSCM) – also known as bug sweeping – are a highly-specialized, professional service designed to detect and identify these types of eavesdropping/surveillance devices.

TSCM professionals use specialized equipment to sweep for bugs. The device search is a comprehensive physical examination of sensitive areas and nearby locales, including but not limited to conference rooms, private offices, home offices, personal vehicles, and more. During the TSCM survey, radio signals are tested for presence and transmission of unwanted signals. This includes a comprehensive search for wiretaps, hidden microphones, and invasive audio and video surveillance devices.

Generally, the threat of surveillance is most serious for business owners who may be targeted by foreign agents seeking to steal trade secrets, crooks or criminals looking to steal intellectual property or secret processes, and even jilted lovers who are looking to rekindle an old romance or exact revenge. For these reasons, businesses must be proactive in their efforts to protect against surveillance threats and attacks.

For this reason, TSCM firms often use software-defined spectrum analysis platforms with advanced sweep performance to detect and remove unauthorized surveillance devices from the workplace. Ultimately, these systems help thwart the unwanted electronic eavesdropping of businesses and high-profile individuals across the globe.

Reconstructive Surveillance

While Foucault’s concept of the panopticon may have a fictitious operation, his notion that visibility is a trap underpins the development and application of many contemporary surveillance technologies. The instruments of preconstructive surveillance – CCTV cameras in public and quasi-public spaces, forensic techniques for trace material collection, computer facilitated transcriptions of telephone or on-line conversations, and so on – capture a wide range of criminal activities and agents.

The emergence of reconstructive surveillance, through DNA profiling and database development, marks a new phase in the evolution of police powers. Unlike fingerprints or other trace materials collected as forensic evidence, DNA databases enable the closure of the gap between the archival support of surveillance and the identification of individual suspects. This closed circuit of surveillance – with the speed, efficiency, automation and accuracy that DNA databases offer – has attracted significant financial and legislative support from the UK authorities since the 1990s.

While the aims and ambitions of DNA profiling, databasing, searching and matching have been influenced by older idealisations of the criminal type, the expansion of this form of surveillance is facilitated by a number of intermeshed strategic trends. These are rooted in state conceptions of crime and social control that are linked to changing ideas about citizenship, rights and responsibilities. They also involve a growing awareness of the inherently social and democratic character of DNA.